BUNDESARCHITEKTENKAMMER E.V. / FEDERAL CHAMBER OF GERMAN ARCHITECTS (BAK)
ECTP-CEU member since: 2018
Amount of own members: 6.676 Spatial Planners
Prof. Ralf Niebergall / BAK Vice-president for European and international affairs
Delegate(s): Michael STEIN
Annual BAK reports to ECTP-CEU
Germany’s projects presented by the BAK to the ECTP-CEU European and Regional Planning Awards:
Country Factsheet for Germany (.de)
ECTP-CEU Stage 2 Draft – Appendix 4 Draft Directory (2012-12-21)
General Country Information
Capital City Berlin
Area (km2) 357 023
Population Density 231 per km2
EU Membership Germany joined what is now known as the EU as a founding member in 1957.
Germany is currently a federal parliamentary republic with sixteen constituent states; the President is the head of state, while the Chancellor is the head of government, and exercises the executive power.
Germany’s Ministry contacts:
(From the Federal Government website)
Following the federal state of Germany, Urban and Spatial planning are regionalized matters, with guidelines coming from the Federal level:
Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Bau, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit
Phone: +49 (0) 3018 305-0
Fax: +49 (0) 3018 305-4375
Planning as a Regulated Profession in Germany
As Urban and Spatial planning are regionalized matters in Germany; each of the country’s states is competent for these matters within their respective territory.
The common professional name is « Stadtplaner » (“Town Planner”).
EU Database Status:
The profession of planner in Germany is included in the EU Database of Regulated Professions, but without any information on the type of regulation.
There are 16 federal states in Germany, each with their own Chamber of Architects maintaining statutory registers of town planners. As a result, requirements may differ between Chambers.
Universities with approved trainings in Germany
The course leading to the profession of Urban Planner is particular in Germany; it combines a three year Bachelor in Spatial Planning, and a two year Master or a four year Bachelor in Spatial Planning and a one year Master in Spatial Planning.
These courses are provided, in Germany, by:
• Technical University of Berlin, Department of Urban and Regional Planning (ISR), School of Planning Building Environment
• Technische Universität Dortmund, School of Spatial Planning
• HafenCity University Hamburg, Urban Planning
• University of Kaiserslautern, Faculty of Spatial and Environmental Planning
• Technical University of Brandenburg Cottbus – Senftenberg, Urban and Regional Planning
• University of Kassel, School of Urban Planning and Landscape Planning
• University of Stuttgart, Institute for the Foundations of Planning, Architecture and Urban Planning
• University of Applied Science Nürtingen and Stuttgart, Department of Architecture and Design, Urban Planning
• University of Applied Science Erfurt, Stadt- und Raumplanung
• Bauhaus University Weimar, Architecture and Urbanism, Urbanistik
Example from “ECTP-CEU Draft Stage 2 Study on the Recognition of Planning Qualifications in Europe”:
Combined Study of spatial Planning at the Technical University of Dortmund’s Faculty of Spatial Planning:
During the first four years there is a focus on the basic competencies, while the last year of Master is focused on the preparation of a specialist.
Dortmund is the only university with the combination of four years bachelor and one year master.
Town Planning Press of Germany
• Deutsches Architektenblatt
• Der Architekt
• Immobilien Zeitung
• db – Deutsche Bauzeitung
• dbz – Deutsche Bauzeitschrift
The main documentation about planning and territorial decisions lies in two fundamental documents:
• Federal level: Raumordnungspolitischer Orientierungs- und Handlungsrahmen
(Guidelines and operational framework for spatial planning )
• Länder level: Landesentwicklungsplan / -programme
(State development plan / programme )
• Regional level: Regionalplan, Gebietsentwicklungsplan
Raumordnungspolitischer Orientierungs- und Handlungsrahmen:
They are federal action plans; they set out guiding principles for spatial development and a strategy for the whole of Germany. They also promote the polycentric spatial and settlement structures, and protect natural resources. Due to the spatial development changes, guidelines and framework are constantly updated through those plans.
They are development plans which highlight the wish of spatial and structural development for the territory of a state (Länder). Names can change from state to state, as well as their preparing procedures; but general rules have been implemented for them thanks to the Federal Spatial Planning Act of 1998.
They are concerned by elaboration, integration and implementation of the goals of the state spatial planning. They must be conform to the state and federal spatial planning, but also mediate between those and local urban land-use planning. This coordination ensures that all planning levels won’t be contradictory and assures a global continuity of the planning policy.
• Federal Government, State (Länder) government, and Local/Regional Government
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND COMMUNICATION
Information, consultation and dialogue
Citizens generally have access to the development and implementation of the preparatory land-use plan (Flächennutzungsplan) and the legally binding land-use plan (Bebauungsplan), which are the two municipal planning documents that must be approved by higher authorities.
The public must be informed as early as possible through public advertisement of the purpose of the plan and of all alternative proposals. At this moment, citizens are able to express their views and get clarifications. Public authorities and agencies concerned by the land-use planning also have to be informed.
The draft of land-use plan is then put on public display to allow recommendations and objections regarding the plan, which will be taken into account.
Main Planning legislation
From Federal Building Code (Baugesetzbuch, BauGB), Chapter One, Part One, Subdivision One, Section 1:
“Land-use plans shall safeguard sustainable urban development and a socially equitable utilisation of land for the general good of the community, and shall contribute to securing a more humane environment and to protecting and developing the basic conditions for natural life”
From Federal Regional Planning Act (Raumordnungsgesetz, ROG), Subdivision One, Section 2:
“Regional planning shall be governed by the following principles:
• A well-balanced system of settlements and open spaces shall be developed in the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. Provision shall be made to maintain a functioning ecosystem in built-up and non-built-up areas. Efforts shall be made to establish balanced economic, infrastructural, social, ecological and cultural conditions in the respective regions.
• The decentralized settlement structure of the territory as a whole with its large number of well-functioning centers and city regions shall be maintained. Building activities shall be concentrated in certain areas with a view to establishing a system of functioning central places. The re-use of derelict settlement areas shall be given priority over the use of open spaces.
Federal Ministry fort he Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety
Vereinigung für Stadt-, Regional- und Landesplanung:
Die Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung:
German Law Archive:
Common Mindscapes of The Baltic Spatial Conceptshare:
Regulated Professions Database of the European Commission: